The DIVIDE and RULE TACTICS of HASSAN SHEIK MOHAMUD against the PEOPLE of HIRAN and ALL SOMALIS By Yusuf Hussein Hassan

The DIVIDE and RULE TACTICS of HASSAN SHEIK MOHAMUD against the PEOPLE of HIRAN and ALL SOMALIS By Yusuf Hussein Hassan
OCT. 17, 2016

“Freedom is never voluntary given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed” Martin Luther King.

Yusuf Hussein HassanThe Divide and rule tactics: Hassan Sheik Mohamud of Somalia used the divide and rule tactics against the people of Hiran and all Somalis. This corrupt and dictatorial government in Mogadishu, whose term expired in September 2016 and their cohorts used many stupid people from Hiran against the people of Hiran and against all Somalis. Also, money from the UN, the Western world, and other world financiers were used against the people of Hiran and against all Somalis. The corrupt and dictatorial governments in Mogadishu and their cohorts have so much money from the UN, the Western world, and other world financiers and they bribe the corrupt traditional leaders and others in Jowhar and then these traditional leaders and others do what this corrupt and dictatorial government tells them.

These stupid people from Hiran in the Hirshabelle group are really stupid. The Hirshabelle idea is ridiculous. Their members of parliament, their leaders and their cohorts they chose are a bunch of idiots. These leaders and cohorts of the so-called Hirshaballe are wasting their time and having a fantasy. This Hirshabelle group is living in a fantasy world. These people from Hiran in the Hirshabelle group do not know the value of the Hiran State; they only care about gaining the power. Also, they do not know the value of the rights and freedoms of the Hiran people and for all Somalis and they do not care about the rights and freedoms of the Hiran people and for all Somalis.

Rights and Freedoms are very important for every person in Hiran, for every person in Somalia and for every person in this world. The people of Hiran have stood up for their rights and freedoms. The people of Hiran have taken a stand for their rights and freedoms against the corrupt and dictatorial government in Mogadishu, whose term expired in September 2016 and their cohorts. But many stupid people from Hiran and money from the UN, Western world and other world financiers were used against the people of Hiran and all Somalis. This corrupt and dictatorial government in Mogadishu and their cohorts did not let the people of Hiran to make their own decisions and to form their own state, the Hiran State, a member state of the Somali Federal Republic and to choose their leaders.

The people of Hiran expressed their gratitude to everyone for the support. The people of Hiran will never give up the formation for Hiran, the Hiran State – a member state of the Somali Federal Republic The vast majority of the Hiran people are very optimistic and they always hope for the best and do their best to provide everyone with equal rights. They advocate for democracy, fairness, and justice in Somalia and do all they can do for their people and for all Somalis and for the country. The people of Hiran stand up for their rights and for the rights of all Somalis. The people of Hiran and all Somalis will never give up their rights and freedoms. The Hiran people do not need someone else to tell them what to do. Only the people of Hiran can decide for themselves; only the people of Hiran can decide the state’s future. The people of Hiran decided to choose their own leaders and to form their own state.

The Hiran State will be represented in the Upper and Lower House of the Somali Federal Republic and will have a voice in the decision-making process. The Members of Parliament in the Upper and Lower Houses from the Hiran State will be chosen in Beledweyne by the people of Hiran. The rights and freedoms for the people of Hiran and all Somalis must be protected.

The stupid people from Hiran in the Hirshabelle group do not care about and they do not know the early Hiran, when Hiran was one of eight administrative regions after Somalia gained independence in 1960. The first Somali president was from Hiran. Hiran was never split and the rest of the seven regions were split into seventeen regions. The people of Hiran always wanted Hiran to be one of the member states in the Somali Federal Republic as Hiran was one of eight administrative regions in 1960. There were 18 regions in Somalia when the civil war broke out in 1991 in Somalia and the country was destroyed and Somalia is currently battling an al-Shabaab insurgency. Many people in Somalia do not get health care and education. The young generation has not received education and all they have seen is the violence and chaos in Somalia.

Also, there is The African Union Mission (AMISOM) of Uganda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti – peacekeeping mission in Somalia approved by the UN. AMISOM under the banner of peacekeepers seem to focus more on a desire to usurp the financial support donated to Somalia and pledged by the world community, mainly from the West. The UN cannot bring about change in Somalia’s security. The Somalis are the only people who can change the situation in Somalia and bring peace to Somalia. Somalis must fight against corruption in Somalia. Only Somalis can solve the country’s problems. The current administrations of the neighbouring nations benefit from the dire situation in Somali. Their aim is to get attention and money from the Western world and other world financiers.

Also, there is a sea boundary case at the International Court of Justice – the IJC, at The Hague (Netherlands), a case brought by Somalia against Kenya – a dispute between Somalia and Kenya about the sea boundary in the Indian Ocean.  Somalia strongly asked the International Court of Justice at The Hague to rule the sea boundary between Somalia and Kenya. Somalia also utterly refused the Kenya’s argument “the world court has no jurisdiction because there are two other methods for resolving the dispute — a 2009 memorandum of understanding between the two countries and a United Nations maritime treaty.” Kenya also argued there is a security situation in Somalia. The sea boundary case is currently with the IJC and the IJC at The Hague will decide whether to take up the case or not in the next two to three months.

The scramble for Africa – Berlin Conference of 1884 – 1885 – the partition (dividing) of Africa – Africa was colonized and divided among European powers. Somalia was divided into five regions – Italian Somaliland, British Somaliland, French Somaliland, Somali region – NFD was given to Kenya by the British Empire and Somali region was given to Ethiopia by the British Empire. Many countries including the neighbouring countries do not favor a united Somalia.
Somalia is a country with a beautiful people strategically located in the Horn of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Indian Ocean in the east, Ethiopia in the west, Kenya in the southwest and Djibouti in the northeast.

Hiran is one of the densely populated regions of Somalia with people from diverse clans and it is located in the centre of Somalia. Beledweyne city is the capital of Hiran, about 350 km north of Mogadishu, and there is a very popular song about Beledweyne called “Beledweyn”. Hiran has the Shabelle River which zigzags through the region and fertile farming and grazing land encourage agriculture.

The people of Hiran decided to pool their resources to have a strong state – Hiran State and rebuild their state with better roads, schools, hospitals and etc. – that will benefit the people of Hiran and all Somalis.

Currently, the Somali parliament members (clan-based parliament – so-called “formula 4.5”) are selected by traditional leaders. The president is elected by these parliament members – Upper and Lower House. The president appoints the prime minister, who is approved by the parliament, and the prime minister appoints his/her cabinet, the ministers in the cabinet, and the government institutions that are then approved by the parliament. As a result, the genuine Hiran traditional leaders must be included among the elders who will select the Member of Parliament in 2016, as they are Somali traditional leaders.

There are many people or politicians from Hiran in Mogadishu ready and willing to bribe the National electoral commission in Mogadishu and other government officials to become members of parliament or members of the government—say, a minister representing their region or clan. These politicians do not care about their region; they only care about gaining power. Most Somali politicians or leaders claim they are protecting their people; however, they have their own hidden agenda to protect and promote their personal aggrandizements such as power, money, and fame at the expense of their own people and country. Clearly, these Somali politicians or leaders do not care about the Somali people and the country.

News agencies – gatekeepers from the major News Corporations – BBC, VOA or others, including the Somali version do not allow accurate reporting and insightful and reliable coverage of political, economic, social, security and media news to the long-suffering Somalis and the generous international audiences. These news agencies – the gatekeepers and their cohorts often misinform and mislead the passive powerless audiences, sensationalize what is happening in Hiran and the rest of Somalia. They often glorify the stupid Somalis and other thugs.

For the past twenty-five years, the vast majority of the Somali politicians and their cohorts have not shown any real interest in a creating a Somalia nation because of their selfishness and power-grabbing mentality. Their real fear is ceding power to a contending clan, which will have the sole controlling the power of the Somali people. Then their chance of sharing the power of the clan-based government would go flying out the window. This premise may ring true when we think of what has been happening in the country for the last five decades or so. Somalis have tolerated this one clan domination system in their country. Somalis relied on a careless selfish political system of the military regime and the previous corrupt governments. Then again, Somalis have carelessly relied on these power-hungry people in Mogadishu and their cohorts to correct the past mistakes.

The colonialism, European powers in Somalia, dictatorship government and divide and rule era is over. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa needs to refrain from chasing the dream of state formation for the Hiran and Middle Shabelle region if it wants to help Somalia. Also, the current colonial system – the ruling classes of exploiter states, including the Somali government and their cohorts in Mogadishu, whose term expired in September and IGAD have no right to interfere in the internal affairs of Hiran, and they must let the people of Hiran make their own decisions.

Hassan Sheik Mohamud of Somalia pursued a policy of divide and rule – divide and rule tactics; he worked to block the Hiran State, a member state of the Somali Federal Republic. As a result, Hassan Sheik Mohamud of Somalis began to divide the people of Hiran and all Somalis into separate groups. It seems that he clearly intends to create conflicts and clan frictions among the people of Hiran and among all Somalis, which will cause the loss of lives of innocent people, refugees, internally displaced people, famine, and destruction. Finally, Hassan Sheik Mohamud does not care about the Somali people and the country, he only cares about regaining the power. The people of Hiran and all Somali will never give up the state formation for Hiran, the Hiran State – a member state of the Somali Federal Republic.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan majored in sociology (four year program) with a minor in communication studies at the university of Windsor, Canada and Postgraduate certificate in African studies at Ohio University, USA.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan
Windsor, ON. Canada
E-contact: yusuf.h.hassan@gmail.com

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Only the people of Hiran can decide its future By Yusuf Hussein Hassan

Only the people of Hiran can decide its future By Yusuf Hussein Hassan

SEPT. 25, 2016

Yusuf Hussein HassanThe people of Hiran does not need someone to tell the people of Hiran what to do, only the people of Hiran can decide for themselves – Only the people of Hiran can decide its future. The people of Hiran decided to choose their own leaders and form their own state – Hiran State.

Currently, there is a state formation conference in Beledweyne for the Hiran region.  The people of Hiran feel that this is a historic victory for Hiran. Regional officials, clan elders, religious leaders, youth and women’s representatives, civil society organizations, politicians, ordinary citizens and all the genuine Hiran traditional leaders are taking part in the state formation conference in Beledweyne for the Hiran region.

The people of Hiran must choose their own leaders – members of parliament – upper and lower house and members of the government representing the Hiran state.  The people of Hiran feel they will be represented in the government and the parliament and have a voice in the decision-making process. Also, the people of Hiran must form their own state – Hiran State – a member state of the Somali Federal Republic.

Hiran was one of the eight administrative regions when Somalia gained independence in 1960. The first Somali president was from Hiran. Hiran was never split and the rest of the seven regions were split into seventeen regions. The people of Hiran want Hiran to be one of the member states in the Somali Federal Republic as Hiran was one of the eight administrative regions in 1960. There were 18 regions in Somalia when the civil war broke out in 1991 in Somalia and the country was destroyed and Somalia is currently battling an al Shabaab insurgency. Many people in Somalia do not get health care and education. The young generation has not received education and all they have seen is the violence and chaos in Somalia.

There is the African Union Mission (AMISOM) of Uganda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti – peacekeeping mission in Somalia approved by the UN. AMISOM under the banner of peacekeepers seem to focus more on a desire to usurp the financial support donated to Somalia and pledged by the world community, mainly from the West.  The UN cannot bring about change in Somalia’s security. The Somalis are the only people who can change the situation in Somalia and bring peace to Somalia. Somalis must fight against corruption in Somalia. Only Somalis can solve the country’s problems. The current administrations of the neighbouring nations benefit from the dire situation in Somalia. Their aim is to get attention and money from the Western world and other world financiers.

Also, there is a sea boundary case at the International Court of Justice – the IJC, at The Hague (Netherlands), a case brought by Somalia against Kenya – a dispute between Somalia and Kenya about the sea boundary in the Indian Ocean.

Somalia strongly asked the International Court of Justice at The Hague to rule the sea boundary between Somalia and Kenya.  Somalia also utterly refused the Kenya’s argument “the world court has no jurisdiction because there are two other methods for resolving the dispute — a 2009 memorandum of understanding between the two countries and a United Nations maritime treaty.” Kenya also argued there is a security situation in Somalia.  The sea boundary case is currently with the IJC and the IJC at The Hague will decide whether to take up the case or not in the next two to three months.

The scramble for Africa – Berlin Conference of 1884 – 1885 – the partition (dividing) of Africa – Africa was colonized and divided among European powers. Somalia was divided into five regions – Italian Somaliland, British Somaliland, French Somaliland, Somali region – NFD was given to Kenya by the British Empire and Somali region was given to Ethiopia by the British Empire. Many countries including the neighbouring countries do not favor a united Somalia.

Somalia is a country with a beautiful people strategically located in the Horn of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Indian Ocean in the east, Ethiopia in the west, Kenya in the southwest and Djibouti in the northeast.

Hiran is one of the densely populated regions of Somalia with people from diverse clans and it is located in the centre of Somalia. Beledweyne city is the capital of Hiran, about 350 km north of Mogadishu, and there is a very popular song about Beledweyne called “Beledweyn”. Hiran has the Shabelle River which zigzags through the region and fertile farming and grazing land encourage agriculture.

Currently, the Somali parliament members (clan-based parliament – so called “formula 4.5”) are selected by traditional leaders. The president is elected by these parliament members – upper and lower house. The president appoints the prime minister, who is approved by the parliament, and the prime minister appoints his/her cabinet, the ministers in the cabinet, and the government institutions that are then approved by the parliament. As a result, the genuine Hiran traditional leaders must be included among the elders who will select the Member of Parliament in 2016, as they are Somali traditional leaders.

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa needs to refrain from chasing the dream of the state formation for the Hiran and Middle Shabelle region if they want to help Somalia. The Somali government term expired and IGAD have no right to interfere in the internal affairs of Hiran and they must let the people of Hiran make their own decisions. The people of Hiran utterly refused to take part in the state formation conference in Jowhar for the Hiran and Middle Shabelle regions spearheaded by the federal government of Somalia term expired and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).

There are many people or politicians from Hiran in Mogadishu ready and willing to bribe the National electoral commission in Mogadishu and other government officials to become members of parliament or members of the government—say, a minister representing their region or clan. These politicians do not care about their region; they only care about gaining power. Most Somali politicians or leaders claim they are protecting their people; however, they have their own hidden agenda to protect and promote their personal aggrandizements such as power, money and fame at the expense of their own people and country. Clearly, these Somali politicians or leaders do not care about the Somali people and the country.

The Somali Federal Republic must honestly believe that people of Hiran is telling the truth and also fully recognize the people of Hiran’s need to from their own state – Hiran State – a member state in the Somali Federal Republic. This is the only real, peaceful solution to a member state in the Somali Federal Republic. Hiran also must get the help they need from the world community, the United Nations’ organization and others.

The federal parliament and government of Somalia in Mogadishu term expired must deeply feel the need to treat the people of Hiran with respect.

The people of Hiran decided to pool their resources to have a strong state – Hiran State and rebuild their state with better roads, schools, hospitals and etc. – that will benefit the people of Hiran and the whole Somalis.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan majored in sociology (four year program) with a minor in communication studies at the university of Windsor, Canada and Postgraduate certificate in African studies at Ohio University, USA.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan
Windsor, ON. Canada
E-contact: yusuf.h.hassan@gmail.com

The federal state formation conference in Jowhar for the Hiran and Middle Shabelle regions By Yusuf Hussein Hassan

The federal state formation conference in Jowhar for the Hiran and Middle Shabelle regions By Yusuf Hussein Hassan

August 31, 2016

Yusuf Hussein HassanFor the last couple of months, there have been many news reports saying that there is a federal state formation conference for the Hiran and Middle Shabelle regions in Jowhar. The reports claim that all the genuine Hiran traditional leaders are taking part in the state formation conference spearheaded by the federal government of Somalia and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa.

This is not true. Many Hiran traditional leaders led by Ugaas Hassan Ugaas Khaliif Ugaas Rooble so far refused to take part in this conference in Jowhar. The Somali president Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the prime minister of Somalia Omar Abdirashid Sharmarke, the special envoy to Somalia from the IGAD Mohamed Abdi Affey and other high-level delegates recently visited Beledweyne to tell the Hiran traditional leaders, led by Ugaas Hassan, to take part in the federal state formation conference for the Hiran and Middle Shabelle regions in Jowhar, but these traditional leaders refused and demanded from the president, the prime minister, the envoy and other delegates confirmation that Hiran must be divided into two regions to be eligible to form a federal state of Somalia, and for equal power sharing, and there must be a comprehensive and real reconciliation in the Hiran clans and transfer of the Jowhar conference to Beledweyne town. The current incomplete Somali constitution states that a federal state must be comprised of two or more regions.

Hiran was one of the eight administrative regions when Somalia gained independence in 1960. The first Somali president was from Hiran. Hiran was never split and the rest of the seven regions were split into eighteen regions. The Middle Shabelle region was separated from the Benadir region. The vast majority of the people of Hiran want Hiran to be one of the federal states as Hiran was one of the eight administrative regions in 1960. There were 18 regions in Somalia when the civil war broke out in 1991 in Somalia and the country was destroyed.

Hiran is one of the densely populated regions of Somalia with people from diverse clans and it is located in the centre of Somalia. Beledweyne city is the capital of Hiran, about 350 km north of Mogadishu, and there is a very popular song about Beledweyne called “Beledweyn”. Hiran has the Shabelle River which zigzags through the region and fertile farming and grazing land encourage agriculture.

Now, the Federal Government of Somalia and the IGAD are being extremely misleading about this conference and are using some people from Hiran to pretend that they are the leaders of many Hiran clans who are absent from the conference, but, as I mentioned before, the genuine Hiran traditional leader of these clans have, so far, refused to take part in the conference.

The Federal government of Somalia and the IGAD are trying to form a federal state of Hiran and Middle Shabelle, using these people. They are deliberately misleading many people in Hiran and the sponsor of this conference.

Wouldn’t it be a huge step for the current federal government of Somalia and the IGAD to form a Hiran state like they did with the other Somali federal states? Many people of Hiran would be delighted to see Hiran become one of the federal states of Somalia. Many people in Hiran agree that forming their own federal state – Hiran state – is a good idea. Many people of Hiran would like to report this misleading behaviour and mistreatment to the sponsor of this conference and the United Nations, the European Union, the African Union, the IGAD and others.

The people of the Hiran region have genuine traditional leaders and many of these traditional leaders refused to take part in the state formation conference in Jowhar for Hiran and Middle Shabelle. For example, the Hawadle clan has only one traditional leader, Ugaas Hassan Ugaas Khaliif Ugaas Rooble, and he is the genuine traditional leader of the Hawadle clan. Ugaas Hassan Ugaas Khaliif Ugaas Rooble is the one who led many Hiran traditional leaders in refusing to take part in the state formation conference for Hiran and Middle Shabelle regions in Johwar.

Currently, the Somali parliament members (clan-based parliament) are selected by traditional leaders. The president is elected by these parliament members. The president appoints the prime minister, who is approved by the parliament, and the prime minister appoints his/her cabinet, the ministers in the cabinet, and the government institutions that are then approved by the parliament. As a result, the traditional leaders led by Ugaas Hassan Ugaas Khaliif Ugaas Rooble must be included among the elders who will select the Member of Parliament in 2016, as they are Somali traditional leaders.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan majored in sociology (four year program) with a minor in communication studies at the university of Windsor, Canada and Postgraduate certificate in African studies at Ohio University, USA.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan
Windsor, ON. Canada
E-contact: yusuf.h.hassan@gmail.com

The History and Politics of Somalia By Yusuf Hussein Hassan

The History and Politics of Somalia By Yusuf Hussein Hassan
Thursday August 20, 2015Yusuf Hussein Hassan

Somalia is a country with a beautiful people strategically located in the Horn of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Indian Ocean in the east, Ethiopia in the west, Kenya in the southwest and Djibouti in the northeast.

The flag of Somalia a light blue field with a central white star, represents the five regions, Djibouti Somalia, South Somalia, North Somalia, the Somali region in Ethiopia and the Somali region in Kenya, in the Horn of Africa. The very vast majority, Somalis, desire a united Somalia – one Somalia but the Somali political opportunists and many countries including the neighbouring countries do not favor a united Somalia.

Somalia has an area of 637,657 square kilometers with a population estimate of more than 11,000,000 (as there has been no census in Somalia for a long time due to the instability of the country). Somali has a long coastline of more than 3,300 kilometers, adjacent to one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. There are also two main rivers, the Shebelle and the Juba.

Somalia was also known as the Land of Punt, ‘the land of gods’, famous for frankincense, myrrh and etc. in the time of the Egyptian pharaohs. The Chinese traded directly with the Somalis in the tenth century. The Portuguese were the first European explorers to visit Somalia.

Somalia has warm weather year round, generally considered as consisting both of two rainy seasons – Gu, or spring/long rain from April – to June and Deyr, or autumn/short rain from October to December and also two dry seasons – Jiilaal, or winter from January to March and Xagaa (Hagaa) or summer from July to September. This is the norm but there are frequent long periods of drought that result in extended seasons of food insecurity.

Somalia has significant natural resources. There are rich oil deposits, fish in the Shebelle and Juba rivers and seafood in the Somalia’s territorial waters of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. In addition, fertile farming and grazing land promote agriculture. It is important to note that many Somalis are nomadic people, pastoralists, who keep camels, sheep, cattle, goats, etc., and move from place to place to find water and grass for their animals.

Somalis are more than 99.9 per cent Sunni Muslims of a Sufi tradition. There is a very small low-profile Somali Christian community – most of them in the Diaspora and a few followers of other religions can still be identified.

Somalia has one language and one culture. The Somali language is a beautiful language with a rich literature and is spoken in Somalia, the Diaspora and the Somali regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti. The Somali language is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Somalia is also known as ‘Nation of poets’. The Somali language (Latin alphabet) was officially written in 1972 and the Somali language became the official language of Somalia. The Somali literature, history, culture and traditional rules were passed down through generations by oral tradition. Traditionally, Somalis are a kind and generous people.

Currently “Hawala” money transfers, are a lifeline for many people in Somalia. Interestingly, Somalia receives more cash from the Diaspora than from the humanitarian aid.

Unfortunately, Somalia is currently in a dire situation of near universal human suffering at the hands of Somali political opportunists, the Al-Qaeda linked group Al-Shabab. These insurgent militias (clan militias), under the control of corrupt traditional leaders, prolong civil-war, famine, lawlessness, and clan warfare.

In addition, international interventions, including a foreign military intervention in Somalia composed of The African Union Mission (AMISOM) including neighbouring countries of Ethiopia and Kenya, under the banner of peacekeepers seem to focus more on a desire to usurp the financial support donated to Somalia and pledged by the world community, mainly from the West.

Acts of piracy by internal and external actors render the whole Somalia environment hazardous. The pirates, international knaves, force many countries, including the powerful nations to send their warships to the Somalia’s territorial waters to combat and prevent piracy. These powerful nations then compete for military bases inside Somalia’s territorial waters, adjacent the rich oil deposits.
Many international companies are dumping their toxic waste and illegally fishing in Somalia’s territorial waters. Barrels and large containers of toxic waste washed up Somalia’s shores after the devastating Tsunami in 2004 hit many countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

Deforestation is ongoing in Somalia. Trees are cut and controlled burning makes charcoal for cooking needs.

Al-shabab composed of insurgent militias (clan militias) is a violent branch of the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) which seized control of many parts of the south and central of Somalia from the clan warlords in the south of Somalia, including the capital, Mogadishu in 2006. Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was one of the leaders of the Union of Islamic Courts before he was elected as a president for the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) by a parliament of 500 seats, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the opposition Alliance for the Re-libration of Somalia (ARS) – 200 seats of the parliament members from (ARS) in 2009 in Djibouti. The Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) opposed the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) – clan based government – so called ‘formula 4.5’ – the clans – Hawiye, Dir, Darod, Rahanweyn and others – a new Somali politicians and the main warlords led by President Abdullahi Yusuf Transitional Federal Government (TFG) which was formed in Kenya in 2004 and at the time of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) based in Baidoa.

Ethiopia troops, an old enemy of Somalia, invaded many parts of the south and central of Somalia after the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) made jihad threat against Ethiopia. There were two major wars (1964 war and 1977 – 1978 war) between Somalia and Ethiopia. In 1977, the whole Somali region in Ethiopia was captured by the Somali forces, but in 1978, the Somali forces were defeated by the Soviet Union and Cuban forces.

Many Al-shabab Islamist militants, including commanders, were killed in U.S. air strikes in Somalia. The United States withdrew all U.S. troops from Somalia in 1993 and the remaining United Nations troops left Somalia in 1995 after the humanitarian operations “Operation Restore Hope” failed to restore food security in the drought induced famine that began in 1992 and was accompanied by civil war. As a result Al-shabab imposed its own strict version of Islamic law in Somalia resulting in assassinations, brutal killings of innocent people, and suicide bombings. They continue to stone people to death and impose punitive amputation while prohibiting smoking, music, singing and other peaceful activities. They also force the women to cover their body from head to toe. Traditionally, the very vast majority, 99 per cent of the Somali women, never dressed from head to toe in black. These actions against the people have shocked the traditional Somali culture values.

In search of freedom and liberation, many Somalis fled to safety from the war-torn country of Somalia crossing over the oceans and national borders of the world, particularly to the west and the oil-rich Gulf Arab region. Many Somalis perished in the seas or while crossing national borders. As a result of this Diaspora, Somalis living in Somalia, view those who now reside in North America and Europe as people living in paradise.

It must be acknowledged that Somali news agencies do not allow most Somalis or international audiences access to accurate reporting or insightful and reliable coverage of political, economic, social, or security related events. In fact these news agencies often misinform and mislead the passive powerless audiences, or sensationalize what is happening both in Somalia and the Somali Diaspora. It seems that news agencies often glorify the rebellious Somalis and other thugs while labeling typical Somalis as bad people. This throws the interests of Somalia and the Somali Diasporas into disarray.

Many Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders as well as the current administrations of the neighbouring nations benefit from the dire situation in Somali. Their aim is to get attention and money from the Western world and other world financiers. Somali political opportunists and corrupt traditional leaders are wreaking havoc and chaos, resulting in civil war.

For the past twenty years or so, the Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders have not shown any real interest in a creating a Somalia nation because of their selfishness and power-grabbing mentality. Their real fear is ceding power to a contending clan, which will have the sole controlling power over the Somali people. Here any chance of sharing the power of the clan-based government goes flying out the window. This theory may ring true when we think of what has been happening in the country for the last five decades or so. Somalis have tolerated a one clan domination system in their country.

A summary of the past events of Somalia – a lesson for the future, Somalis relied on a careless selfish political system of the military regime (1969 – 1991) led by President Mohammed Siyad Barre who took power in coup in 1969 after President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was assassinated akin to the previous corrupt governments. President Mohammed Siad Barre was overthrown in the popular uprising in south Somalia. Civil war broke out in 1991 in Somalia and the country was destroyed. Somalia gained independence from Britain – north Somalia and Italy – south Somalia in 1960 and Aden Abdulle Osman, nicknamed ‘Aden Adde’, also best known as the Somalia’s first president was chosen as a president for the newly independent Somalia Republic and Mogadishu became the capital of Somalia – Mogadishu is the largest city in Somalia and also known as Xamar (Hamar). Somalia’s first election in 1961, Aden Abdulle Osman was elected as a president for the Republic of Somalia for six years. Aden Abdulle Osman lost the presidential election in 1967 in Somalia and peacefully relinquished power to his opponent Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke.

The scramble for Africa – Berlin Conference of 1884 – 1885 – the partition (dividing) of Africa – Africa was colonized and divided among European powers and drawn up most borders that exist in Africa today – Colonial borders of European powers in Africa after the British Parliament abolished slavery in all British territories in 1833. Slave trade in the 17th – 19th centuries, the slave trade – the slavery was the ownership – a big business – the buying and selling of human beings as slave – more than four hundred years millions of people from Africa were imported directly to the Americas as slave by against their will and many were taken to the Middle East and North Africa. At the Berlin Conference, the free state of Congo (today the Democratic republic Congo) was created for the Belgium king of Leopold II (1865 – 1909) as his own private state (1876 – 1908). European colonialism 1840 – 1960, Somalia was divided into five regions – Italian Somaliland, British Somaliland, French Somaliland, Somali region in Kenya and Somali region in Ethiopia. In 1869, Suez Canal was opened – the shortest link between the east and the west – the Indian Ocean through the red sea and Suez Canal to the Mediterranean sea – in the Somalia’s territorial waters of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean – important international shipping lanes – canal linking the Mediterranean Sea at Port Said and the red sea at Suez – the ships no longer needed to travel around southern Africa. In 1875, Egypt occupied some towns on the Somali coast and some inland towns.

In 1899, Mohammed Abdulle Hassan (the Sayyid), nicknamed ‘Mad Mullah’ by the British fought against the colonial occupation, British and Ethiopia (1899 – 1920). During the Second World War (1939 –1945), the British Somaliland – north Somalia was captured in 1940 by Italians but after one year the British recaptured the north and occupied south Somalia in 1941 and colonized the south Somalia until 1949. Britain gave the west Somalia (the Somali region in the Ethiopia – Ogaden) to Ethiopia in 1948. The United Nations is founded in 1945. Italian trusteeship – Italy was granted to govern Somalia 1950 – 1960 period of trusteeship by the United Nations. In 1956, Somalia was granted to govern itself internally – internal autonomy 1956 – early of 1960 in Somalia. The Somali youth league (SYL) was founded in 1943 and took part in the Somalia’s struggle for the independence.

In 2000, Abdikassim Salat Hassan was elected president of Somalia (2000 – 2004) by clan-based leaders in Arta, Djibouti at the Somali national peace conference. Unfortunately, many powerful warlords in Mogadishu, Somaliland (north Somalia) and Puntland (northeastern Somalia) refused to take part in this peace conference. Previously, at another conference in Djibouti, Ali Mahdi was chosen as an interim president in 1991 but the Abgaal clan, under Ali Mahdi in the north of Mogadishu – and Habargidir clan, under General Mohamed Farah Aidid in the south of Mogadishu – a two sub-clans of Hawiye clan fighting broke out in Mogadishu. In 2012, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected as president of Somalia who beat Sharif Sheikh Ahmed by the Somali parliament members (clan based parliament) – the first presidential election happened in Somalia since the election in 1967.

Currently, the Somali parliament members (clan based parliament) are selected by corrupt traditional leaders. The clan elders and the president are elected by these parliament members. The president appoints the prime minister who is approved by the parliament and the prime minister appoints his/her cabinet, the ministers in the cabinet, and the government institutions that are then approved by the parliament.

Somali political opportunists and corrupt traditional leaders seek to divide Somalis into separate groups. They often create conflicts and clan friction, that has until now resulted in the loss of up to one million lives of innocent people. These Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders claim they are protecting their people; however, they have their own hidden agenda to protect and promote their personal aggrandizements such as power, money and fame at the expense of their own people and country. Clearly, these Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders do not care about the Somali people and the country. The confusion, hypocrisy, violence, chaos, greediness and lack of vision of Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders in conjunction with international interventions including the neighboring countries has discouraged and blocked the many valuable, honest, understanding, reasonable people from getting involved in Somali politics.

Similarly, the current administrations of the neighbouring nations, divide Somalis into separate groups which create more chaos and confusion. They claim they are helping Somalia to become a stable country however they have their own hidden agenda: to protect and promote their own interests. In short they do not want to see peace in Somali and they do not care about Somalis and the country.

In conclusion, Somalis make Somalia; I feel that everyone in this world ought to make a positive difference; Every Somali including me ought to make a positive difference and make a positive contribution to their beautiful homeland Somalia. Somalis including me must take care of themselves and their beautiful country. The international community must understand that they should treat Somalis the same way as they would like to be treated. Somalis, including the Diaspora and the Somali regions of Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti can make Somalia a great nation. Peace and prosperity to Somalia.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan revised his article “Give Suffering Somalis Peace of Mind” first appeared in SANKOFA NEWS in winter 2001, Windsor, ON. Canada.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan majored in sociology (four year program) with a minor in communication studies at the university of Windsor, Canada and Graduate certificate in African studies at Ohio University, USA.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan
Windsor, ON. Canada
E-contact: yusuf.h.hassan@gmail.com

SOMALIA: MY WORLD: MY CULTURE By Yusuf Hussein Hassan

SOMALIA: MY WORLD: MY CULTURE By Yusuf Hussein Hassan
Thursday August 20, 2015

Yusuf Hussein HassanSomalia is a country with a beautiful people strategically located in the Horn of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Indian Ocean in the east, Ethiopia in the west, Kenya in the southwest and Djibouti in the northeast.

The flag of Somalia a light blue field with a central white star, represents the five regions, Djibouti Somalia, South Somalia, North Somalia, the Somali region in Ethiopia and the Somali region in Kenya, in the Horn of Africa. The very vast majority, Somalis, desire a united Somalia – one Somalia but the Somali political opportunists and many countries including the neighbouring countries do not favor a united Somalia.

Somalia has an area of 637,657 square kilometers with a population estimate of more than 11,000,000 (as there has been no census in Somalia for a long time due to the instability of the country). Somali has a long coastline of more than 3,300 kilometers, adjacent to one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. There are also two main rivers, the Shebelle and the Juba.

Somalia was also known as the Land of Punt, ‘the land of gods’, famous for frankincense, myrrh and etc. in the time of the Egyptian pharaohs. The Chinese traded directly with the Somalis in the tenth century. The Portuguese were the first European explorers to visit Somalia.

Somalia has warm weather year round, generally considered as consisting both of two rainy seasons – Gu, or spring/long rain from April – to June and Deyr, or autumn/short rain from October to December and also two dry seasons – Jiilaal, or winter from January to March and Xagaa (Hagaa) or summer from July to September. This is the norm but there are frequent long periods of drought that result in extended seasons of food insecurity.

Somalia has significant natural resources. There are rich oil deposits, fish in the Shebelle and Juba rivers and seafood in the Somalia’s territorial waters of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. In addition, fertile farming and grazing land promote agriculture. It is important to note that many Somalis are nomadic people, pastoralists, who keep camels, sheep, cattle, goats, etc., and move from place to place to find water and grass for their animals.

Somalis are more than 99.9 per cent Sunni Muslims of a Sufi tradition. There is a very small low-profile Somali Christian community – most of them in the Diaspora and a few followers of other religions can still be identified.

Somalia has one language and one culture. The Somali language is a beautiful language with a rich literature and is spoken in Somalia, the Diaspora and the Somali regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti. The Somali language is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Somalia is also known as ‘Nation of poets’. The Somali language (Latin alphabet) was officially written in 1972 and the Somali language became the official language of Somalia. The Somali literature, history, culture and traditional rules were passed down through generations by oral tradition. Traditionally, Somalis are a kind and generous people.

Currently “Hawala” money transfers, are a lifeline for many people in Somalia. Interestingly, Somalia receives more cash from the Diaspora than from the humanitarian aid.

Unfortunately, Somalia is currently in a dire situation of near universal human suffering at the hands of Somali political opportunists, the Al-Qaeda linked group Al-Shabab. These insurgent militias (clan militias), under the control of corrupt traditional leaders, prolong civil-war, famine, lawlessness, and clan warfare.

In addition, international interventions, including a foreign military intervention in Somalia composed of The African Union Mission (AMISOM) including neighbouring countries of Ethiopia and Kenya, under the banner of peacekeepers seem to focus more on a desire to usurp the financial support donated to Somalia and pledged by the world community, mainly from the West.

Acts of piracy by internal and external actors render the whole Somalia environment hazardous. The pirates, international knaves, force many countries, including the powerful nations to send their warships to the Somalia’s territorial waters to combat and prevent piracy. These powerful nations then compete for military bases inside Somalia’s territorial waters, adjacent the rich oil deposits.

Many international companies are dumping their toxic waste and illegally fishing in Somalia’s territorial waters. Barrels and large containers of toxic waste washed up Somalia’s shores after the devastating Tsunami in 2004 hit many countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

Deforestation is ongoing in Somalia. Trees are cut and controlled burning makes charcoal for cooking needs.

Al-shabab composed of insurgent militias (clan militias) is a violent branch of the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) which seized control of many parts of the south and central of Somalia from the clan warlords in the south of Somalia, including the capital, Mogadishu in 2006. Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was one of the leaders of the Union of Islamic Courts before he was elected as a president for the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) by a parliament of 500 seats, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the opposition Alliance for the Re-libration of Somalia (ARS) – 200 seats of the parliament members from (ARS) in 2009 in Djibouti. The Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) opposed the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) – clan based government – so called ‘formula 4.5’ – the clans – Hawiye, Dir, Darod, Rahanweyn and others – a new Somali politicians and the main warlords led by President Abdullahi Yusuf Transitional Federal Government (TFG) which was formed in Kenya in 2004 and at the time of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) based in Baidoa.

Ethiopia troops, an old enemy of Somalia, invaded many parts of the south and central of Somalia after the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) made jihad threat against Ethiopia. There were two major wars (1964 war and 1977 – 1978 war) between Somalia and Ethiopia. In 1977, the whole Somali region in Ethiopia was captured by the Somali forces, but in 1978, the Somali forces were defeated by the Soviet Union and Cuban forces.

Many Al-shabab Islamist militants, including commanders, were killed in U.S. air strikes in Somalia. The United States withdrew all U.S. troops from Somalia in 1993 and the remaining United Nations troops left Somalia in 1995 after the humanitarian operations “Operation Restore Hope” failed to restore food security in the drought induced famine that began in 1992 and was accompanied by civil war. As a result Al-shabab imposed its own strict version of Islamic law in Somalia resulting in assassinations, brutal killings of innocent people, and suicide bombings. They continue to stone people to death and impose punitive amputation while prohibiting smoking, music, singing and other peaceful activities. They also force the women to cover their body from head to toe. Traditionally, the very vast majority, 99 per cent of the Somali women, never dressed from head to toe in black. These actions against the people have shocked the traditional Somali culture values.

In search of freedom and liberation, many Somalis fled to safety from the war-torn country of Somalia crossing over the oceans and national borders of the world, particularly to the west and the oil-rich Gulf Arab region. Many Somalis perished in the seas or while crossing national borders. As a result of this Diaspora, Somalis living in Somalia, view those who now reside in North America and Europe as people living in paradise.

It must be acknowledged that Somali news agencies do not allow most Somalis or international audiences access to accurate reporting or insightful and reliable coverage of political, economic, social, or security related events. In fact these news agencies often misinform and mislead the passive powerless audiences, or sensationalize what is happening both in Somalia and the Somali Diaspora. It seems that news agencies often glorify the rebellious Somalis and other thugs while labeling typical Somalis as bad people. This throws the interests of Somalia and the Somali Diasporas into disarray.
Many Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders as well as the current administrations of the neighbouring nations benefit from the dire situation in Somali. Their aim is to get attention and money from the Western world and other world financiers. Somali political opportunists and corrupt traditional leaders are wreaking havoc and chaos, resulting in civil war.

For the past twenty years or so, the Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders have not shown any real interest in a creating a Somalia nation because of their selfishness and power-grabbing mentality. Their real fear is ceding power to a contending clan, which will have the sole controlling power over the Somali people. Here any chance of sharing the power of the clan-based government goes flying out the window. This theory may ring true when we think of what has been happening in the country for the last five decades or so. Somalis have tolerated a one clan domination system in their country.

A summary of the past events of Somalia – a lesson for the future, Somalis relied on a careless selfish political system of the military regime (1969 – 1991) led by President Mohammed Siyad Barre who took power in coup in 1969 after President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was assassinated akin to the previous corrupt governments. President Mohammed Siad Barre was overthrown in the popular uprising in south Somalia. Civil war broke out in 1991 in Somalia and the country was destroyed. Somalia gained independence from Britain – north Somalia and Italy – south Somalia in 1960 and Aden Abdulle Osman, nicknamed ‘Aden Adde’, also best known as the Somalia’s first president was chosen as a president for the newly independent Somalia Republic and Mogadishu became the capital of Somalia – Mogadishu is the largest city in Somalia and also known as Xamar (Hamar). Somalia’s first election in 1961, Aden Abdulle Osman was elected as a president for the Republic of Somalia for six years. Aden Abdulle Osman lost the presidential election in 1967 in Somalia and peacefully relinquished power to his opponent Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke.

The scramble for Africa – Berlin Conference of 1884 – 1885 – the partition (dividing) of Africa – Africa was colonized and divided among European powers and drawn up most borders that exist in Africa today – Colonial borders of European powers in Africa after the British Parliament abolished slavery in all British territories in 1833. The slave trade in the 17th – 19th centuries, the slave trade – the slavery was the ownership – a big business – the buying and selling of human beings as slave – more than four hundred years millions of people from Africa were imported directly to the Americas as slave by against their will and many were taken to the Middle East and North Africa. At the Berlin Conference, the free state of Congo (today the Democratic republic Congo) was created for the Belgium king of Leopold II (1865 – 1909) as his own private state (1876 – 1908). European colonialism 1840 – 1960, Somalia was divided into five regions – Italian Somaliland, British Somaliland, French Somaliland, Somali region in Kenya and Somali region in Ethiopia. In 1869, Suez Canal was opened – the shortest link between the east and the west – the Indian Ocean through the red sea and Suez Canal to the Mediterranean sea – in the Somalia’s territorial waters of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean – important international shipping lanes – canal linking the Mediterranean Sea at Port Said and the red sea at Suez – the ships no longer needed to travel around southern Africa. In 1875, Egypt occupied some towns on the Somali coast and some inland towns.

In 1899, Mohammed Abdulle Hassan (the Sayyid), nicknamed ‘Mad Mullah’ by the British fought against the colonial occupation, British and Ethiopia (1899 – 1920). During the Second World War (1939 –1945), the British Somaliland – north Somalia was captured in 1940 by Italians but after one year the British recaptured the north and occupied south Somalia in 1941 and colonized the south Somalia until 1949. Britain gave the west Somalia (the Somali region in the Ethiopia – Ogaden) to Ethiopia in 1948. The United Nations is founded in 1945. Italian trusteeship – Italy was granted to govern Somalia 1950 – 1960 period of trusteeship by the United Nations. In 1956, Somalia was granted to govern itself internally – internal autonomy 1956 – early of 1960 in Somalia. The Somali youth league (SYL) was founded in 1943 and took part in the Somalia’s struggle for the independence.

In 2000, Abdikassim Salat Hassan was elected president of Somalia (2000 – 2004) by clan-based leaders in Arta, Djibouti at the Somali national peace conference. Unfortunately, many powerful warlords in Mogadishu, Somaliland (north Somalia) and Puntland (northeastern Somalia) refused to take part in this peace conference. Previously, at another conference in Djibouti, Ali Mahdi was chosen as an interim president in 1991 but the Abgaal clan, under Ali Mahdi in the north of Mogadishu – and Habargidir clan, under General Mohamed Farah Aidid in the south of Mogadishu – a two sub-clans of Hawiye clan fighting broke out in Mogadishu. In 2012, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected as president of Somalia who beat Sharif Sheikh Ahmed by the Somali parliament members (clan based parliament) – the first presidential election happened in Somalia since the election in 1967.

Currently, the Somali parliament members (clan based parliament) are selected by corrupt traditional leaders. The clan elders and the president are elected by these parliament members. The president appoints the prime minister who is approved by the parliament and the prime minister appoints his/her cabinet, the ministers in the cabinet, and the government institutions that are then approved by the parliament.

Somali political opportunists and corrupt traditional leaders seek to divide Somalis into separate groups. They often create conflicts and clan friction, that has until now resulted in the loss of up to one million lives of innocent people. These Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders claim they are protecting their people; however, they have their own hidden agenda to protect and promote their personal aggrandizements such as power, money and fame at the expense of their own people and country. Clearly, these Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders do not care about the Somali people and the country. The confusion, hypocrisy, violence, chaos, greediness and lack of vision of Somali politicians and corrupt traditional leaders in conjunction with international interventions including the neighboring countries has discouraged and blocked the many valuable, honest, understanding, reasonable people from getting involved in Somali politics.

Similarly, the current administrations of the neighbouring nations, divide Somalis into separate groups which create more chaos and confusion. They claim they are helping Somalia to become a stable country however they have their own hidden agenda: to protect and promote their own interests. In short they do not want to see peace in Somali and they do not care about Somalis and the country.

In conclusion, Somalis make Somalia; I feel that everyone in this world ought to make a positive difference; Every Somali including me ought to make a positive difference and make a positive contribution to their beautiful homeland Somalia. Somalis including me must take care of themselves and their beautiful country. The international community must understand that they should treat Somalis the same way as they would like to be treated. Somalis, including the Diaspora and the Somali regions of Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti can make Somalia a great nation. Peace and prosperity to Somalia.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan revised his article “Give Suffering Somalis Peace of Mind” first appeared in SANKOFA NEWS in winter 2001, Windsor, ON. Canada.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan majored in sociology (four year program) with a minor in communication studies at the university of Windsor, Canada and Graduate certificate in African studies at Ohio University, USA.

Yusuf Hussein Hassan
Windsor, ON. Canada
E-contact: yusuf.h.hassan@gmail.com